Sunday, April 21, 2013

Writing Stages According to Cummin, Odyssey and Ghazi

Writing Stages According to Cummin, Odyssey and Ghazi - In process writing, students are involved in the construction on topic in which they have a personal interest. 

Cummin (1995) writes there are three stages of the writing process are : 
1) Prewriting
2) Writing
3) Postwriting

Dealing of it, Odyssey (2008) states the four steps of the writing process are prewriting, writing, revising, and proofreading.

Ghazi (2002) also states that there are four steps of the writing process. They are prewriting, planning, drafting, and post writing. 

Based on explanations above, we then can summarize that the steps which is used in learning writing are prewriting, writing, and post-writing. 

Pre-writing
, the first stage in the writing process, begins long before the writer puts thoughts into writing. The experiences, observations, and interactions that students have prior to entering the classroom have an impact upon what the writer will write and how they will write it. Within the classroom, pre-writing prompts and activities can be integrated into the writing process as scaffolds by teachers to help students generate ideas for their writing and to practice the thinking skills inherent in the activity.

To initiate thinking and generate possible writing topics, it is important for students to explore ideas for writing topics using a variety of pre-writing strategies, such as : brainstorming, constructing thought webs and graphic organizers, interviewing a person knowledgeable about the topic, engaging in peer or teacher-student discussions and conferences, listening to music, reading about and researching the topic, free writing or timed free writing about the topic, viewing media such as pictures, movies, and television, listing and categorizing information, reflecting upon personal experience, examining writing models, responding to literature, role playing and other drama techniques and asking with who, what, where, when and why.

Pre-writing prompts or activities planned by the teacher can serve as writing scaffolds for inexperienced writers who have difficulty accessing their own feelings, ideas, experiences, and knowledge. Teacher-planned pre-writing activities, such as: give students a place to start and make them become aware of places from which to get ideas in the future. Students who have a place to start with will be more motivated to continue developing their ideas and their own writing voices.

The next stage is writing. The actual writing stage is essentially just an extension of the prewriting process. The student transfers the information they have gathered and organized into a traditional format. This may take the shape of a simple paragraph, a one-page essay, or a multi-page report. Up until this stage, they may not be exactly certain which direction their ideas will go, but this stage allows them to settle on the course the paper will take. Teaching about writing can sometimes be as simple as evaluation good literature together, and exploring what makes the piece enjoyable or effective. It also involves helping a student choose topics for writing based on their personal interests. Modeling the writing process in front of your child also helps them see that even adults struggle for words and have to work at putting ideas together.

Revising or editing
is usually the least favorite stage of the writing process, especially for beginning writers. Critiquing one’s own writing can easily create tension and frustration. But as you support your young writers, remind them that even the most celebrated authors spend the majority of their time on this stage of the writing process. Revising can include adding, deleting, rearranging and substituting words, sentences, and even entire paragraphs to make their writing more accurately represent their ideas. It is often not a one-time event, but a continual process as the paper progresses. When teaching revision, be sure to allow your child time to voice aloud the problems they see in their writing. This may be very difficult for some children, especially sensitive ones, so allow them to start with something small, such as replacing some passive verbs in their paper with more active ones.

The last stage is post writing. When students have an authentic audience and purpose, they want to rework their written drafts, polishing them for presentation or publication. Going public means taking a huge risk; the student’s self-esteem is on the line, so the decision about how and with whom to share their writing must be up to the student writer. Teachers may encourage students to share certain pieces or determine the number of pieces that students are required to share or publish within a set time period, but ultimately the decision about which pieces to share, and with whom, should be left up to the writer.

To prepare a final, polished draft, students may write in legible handwriting or use a word-processing program to prepare a polished written work. Then their writings go to public through sharing, publishing, and using a portfolio.

Sharing is a useful post- writing activity since it provides students with an immediate audience. Some examples of sharing students’ writings include the author’s chair, which provides opportunity for students to share their writing aloud with the whole class; sharing in small groups or with a partner; and using bulletin board space assigned to a specific genre or to a class of students. At times, students should be provided with opportunities to decide if they wish to share their written work, and whether they will share in pairs, in small groups, or with the whole class.

Then, publishing is one of the post-writing activity which prepares and prints books, magazines, etc. and sells or makes them available to the public. There are some examples of publishing formats include: class booklets, school or local newspaper, yearbook, writing contests, and magazines.

Furthermore, to decide if the written work will be placed in the student’s assessment portfolio, teachers can negotiate with students to generate guidelines about the number and variety of pieces that they are required to place in their portfolio for assessment and evaluation purposes. Contracts may be useful to address individual student needs and abilities. Students should be involved in making choices about which of their written pieces will become part of their portfolios. | by Peacock

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