Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Definisi Pengertian Peyorasi dan Ameliorasi (SEMANTIC CHANGES IN MEANING: PEJORATION vs AMELIORATION)

After several of time, in the middle of my focus on Semantic Understanding, we then move to the Changes in Meaning. Just want to remind you that I have posted articles about TYPES OF MEANING and its branches here include their own elaboration. And I have also introduced to you kinds of Changes in meaning here, So at this point, I begin to explain as much as I know one of the changes in meaning (not one actually, but two. In case of comparison, I explain them in one part).

This article entitled Definisi atau Pengertian Peyorasi dan Ameliorasi (SEMANTIC CHANGES IN MEANING: PEJORATION vs AMELIORATION) wich of course focus on the changes in meaning, Pejoration and Amelioration.


A.    Pejoration - Peyorasi (Perburukan Makna)

Pejoration is the process by means of a word assumes degradation of meaning (Satu kata yang selain bermakna literal atau makna sesuai dengan yang tertera di dalam kamus, juga mengalami degradasi atau perburukan makna).


For Examples: 

1.    Secretary (sekretaris)
 
        a). Literal
 
According to Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary Third Edition, Secretary means someone who works in an office, writing letters, making telephone calls and arranging meetings for a person or for an organization or an official who has responsibility for the general management of an organization.

(Sekretaris dalam artian bahwa seseorang yang bekerja pada suatu perusahaan atau instansi sebagai orang yang bertugas dan bertanggung jawab penuh tentang surat menyurat, dokumen perusahaan, telepon dan orang yang mengatur jadwal-jadwal pertemuan) 
       b). Pejoration 

The word Secretary after undergoing to Pejoration meaning, It then means an affair or the “second” wife (of the boss).

(Kata sekretaris kini mengalami perburukan makna atau peyorasi. Sekarang ini banyak yang mengartikan atau mengasosiasikan sekretaris dengan istri simpanan sang bos, karena sekretaris identik dengan wanita yang cantik dan berpenampilan memikat yang selalu berada dekat dengan sang bos).

2.    Caddie or Caddy
 
       a). Literal (Makna Kamus)

According to Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary Third Edition, Caddie or Caddy means a person who carries the equipment for someone who is playing golf.
       
       b). Pejoration (Perburukan Makna)
 
The word Caddie or Caddy undergoing to Pejoration meaning, it then means a person who accompanies his client or customer not only in the golf field but also on the bed. 

(kata caddy di Indonesia mulai mengalami peyorasi ketika ada kasus antara Antasari Azhar dan Rani Juliani).
B.    Amelioration - Ameliorasi (Pemuliaan Makna)
 
Amelioration is the process where by a word acquires a more favorable meaning than it had before (Satu kata yang kata yang selain bermakna literal/denotasi, juga mengalami pemuliaan makna atau membaik maknanya dibandingkan dengan makna sebelumnya).

For Example:

1.    Hut (gubuk)

        a.) Literal (Makna Kamus)

According to Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary Third Edition, The word  Hut means a small, simple building, usually consisting of one room.

        b). Amelioration (Pemuliaan Makna)

Look at the sentence below:
“Please come to my hut” In Indonesia “singgahlah ke gubukku

Although the speaker said “my hut” but in reality, his house is not a “hut” at all, rather than a big house or a nice building, even it is a beautiful house like a castle. In this situation, the word “hut” gets a more favorable meaning than it had before. It has an amelioration meaning.

(Walaupun si pembicara mengatakan "gubukku" namun dalam artian sebenarnya, dan secara kontekstual ketika melihat sendiri rumahnya, ternyata rumahnya bukanlah gubuk sama sekali, bahkan merupakan sebuah banguna atau rumah yang indah, atau bakan sebuah kastil. Dalam hal ini, kata "gubuk" sudah mendapatkan pemuliaan makna atau ameliorasi).

Baca Juga:
1. Perluasan dan Penyempitan Makna
2. Sinestesia
3. Pergantian Makna (Displaced)  
4. Peyorasi dan Ameliorasi
 

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