Monday, April 29, 2013

Cooperative Learning Method According to Some Experts | Sunal, Hans, Slavin, Anita Lie, Erman Suherman, Gömleksiz, Kauchak and Eggen

Cooperative Learning Method According to Some Experts >>> I think when we say Cooperative Learning, it's a familiar words for teachers in term. Now days, Cooperative Learning become a greater method used in teaching learning processes in order to gain the goals. There are a number of technique can be used in cooperative learning such as STAD and Jigsaw.

While today, our focus is just about the definition of Cooperative Learning based on the quotation of some experts of education. Let's see theirs below:

According Sunal and Hans (2002) “Cooperative Learning As a learner-centered method, cooperative learning is a teaching method by which learners study by helping one another in small groups in their learning process in order to achieve a common objective”. According Slavin (1988) Cooperative learning as a concept consists of several instructional methods in which learners study a language in small groups of 4-6, and group performance is rewarded in several different ways.

According to Anita Lie (2003:28) Cooperation is a necessity very important for survival. Without cooperation, there will be No individual, family, organization or school. According Erman Suherman (2003:260) include cooperative learning small groups of students working as a team to complete problem, complete a task or do something to achieve other shared goals. 

According to Agus Suprijono (2009:57) group is not merely a group of people. Set is called the when there is interaction, whose objective, structured, groups. Interaction are mutually influence one individual with another individual.

According to Gömleksiz (1993) Cooperative learning is an in-class learning approach which is used to help learners develop a positive image both for themselves and their peers, and to improve problem solving and critical thinking skills in order to encourage learners in terms of social skills based on cooperation .

According to Kauchak and Eggen (1998) "Cooperative learning is a learning strategy that involves students to work collaboratively in achieve the goal. "  While Slavin (1994) argues that "In cooperative learning students working with small groups to help each other to learn the material. "Still discusses cooperative learning, described by some experts tries revealed that cooperative learning also called the working group.

According to Etin Solahetin (2008)Cooperative learning implies as an attitude or behavior in work or help in co-operation between the members of the regular structure of the group, which consists of two or more people in which the work is strongly influenced by the success of each member of the group. Meanwhile, according to Kokom Komalasari in Bern and Erickson (2010: 62) “Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that organizes learning by using small learning groups where students do together to achieve learning objectives.

Cooperative learning is a broader concept that includes all types of group work including more forms led by the teacher or directed by the teacher. (Agus suprijono, 2001:54). So cooperative learning is done in groups where teachers remain in the role as a facilitator of learning.

According to Davidson and Warsham (2003), cooperative learning is a teaching and learning in small groups, students learn and work together to come to a group learning experience, individual experience or experience of the group of (Isjoni, 2010: 27)

According Fauziah (2004) The benefit of the cooperative learning method, are:
  • To teach the student to less dependence of the teacher and to giving motivation belief her self.
  • To motivate the students to express their idea and opinion.
  • To help the students to justify and to get study different.
  • To help students get the good result of the study, to improve the sociality, the positive relationship between individualism, to repair time management.
  • To get many educates from cooperative building.
  • The students will get study more, they like school and like the other friends.
  • To increase the students ability to using information.
  • To give more opportunity to the students to make a match question and good answers.
Thanks for reading article about Cooperative Learning Method According to Some Experts | Sunal, Hans, Slavin, Anita Lie, Erman Suherman, Gömleksiz, Kauchak and Eggen.

Definition of Reading According to David Nunan, Tarigan, Olson and Diller | General Concept of Reading

Definition of Reading According to David Nunan, Tarigan, Olson and Diller | General Concept of Reading >>> Before, I have posted some articles about the Definition of Reading according to some Experts. And this is an addition article which defines the same topic. Let's see what experts say about reading.

According David Nunan (1989:33) “Reading is not an invariant skill, that there are different types of reading skills that correspond to the many different purposes we have for reading”. So, in the classroom, in students’ reading activities, the writer is sure that they have many purposes, among others are to graduate from their school and to provide themselves with the knowledge to continue their studies whatever their purposes are. In order to achieve the goal, the comprehension ability in reading is needed. Nunan (1989:33) mentions that with the bottom-up approach, the reading is viewed as a process of decoding written symbols, working from smaller units (individual letter) to larger ones (words, clauses and sentences).

According to Olson and Diller (1982:42), what is meant by reading comprehension is a term used to identify those skills needed to understand and apply information contained in a written material. This statement is supported by Harris and Sipay (1980:179), who say that reading comprehension ability is taught to be a set of generalized knowledge acquisition skills that permits people to acquire and exhibit information gained as a consequence of reading printed language. There's even a sense that views reading as a process of giving meaning to visual symbols (Oka, 1983:11 in Jaenal 2010).

According to (Tarigan (1990:7) in Jaenal 2010) argues that reading is a process that is carried and used by readers who want to get the message delivered by the author through the medium of words or written language. According to (Oka (1983:15) in Jaenal 2010) if viewed in terms of differences in scope, it can be distinguished three kinds of meaning to read: Understanding the first is a narrow sense, namely the sense that regards reading it as a process of written symbols recognition. Into this process included the recognition of words carefully, in a wide range, and quickly.| By Peacock

Definition of Jigsaw Technique (Cooperative Learning) According to Some Experts

Definition of Jigsaw Technique (Cooperative Learning) According to Some Experts >>> Now days, Cooperative Learning becomes more familiar for teachers. There are a number of Cooperative Learning Techniques, such as Students Team Achiement Division (STAD), Team Investigation (TI), Jigsaw Technique etc. And in this case, I want to share about Jigsaw Technique.

Definition of Jigsaw Technique (Cooperative Learning) According to Some Experts

Mengduo and Xioaling (2010: 113) states that jigsaw technique, which originally developed by Elliot Aronson in 1971, was considered effective in increasing positive educational outcomes. As a cooperative learning technique, it has been greatly studied abroad and has been explored in various ways by a numbers of researchers and teachers in classes of different levels and of different subjects. Suyanto (2012: 169) states that the implementation of cooperative learning jigsaw technique in the teaching learning process can make the students more responsible, therefore they directly and actively take a part in comprehending a problem and fix it together in a group.

Futher, Berkeley-Wykes in El Sami Ali (2001) defines Jigsaw Reading Technique as the technique in which a reading text is cut into segments and the task of the students is to restore it to its proper order – to make sense of the text. If used as a group activity where the students discuss the decisions of how to order the segments of the text, it can elicit a great deal of communicative interaction.

Each student on the team becomes an "expert" on one topic by working with members from other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group; and students are all assessed on all aspects of the topic. | Pengertian Definisi Jigsaw

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Teaching Writing Using Series Picture on Recount Texts

Teaching Writing Using Series Picture on Recount Texts >>> Series picture is a number of similar or related pictures, one following another which has related events. The use of series picture is proper in teaching writing recount, because the media is easy to get. In arranging the series of picture the teacher have to consider what type of picture that the teacher might needs to tell it. The teacher has to arrange the picture based on the text organization and the events chronologically. Recount text organizations are orientation, events and reorientation. Let's see the step below:

1. Orientation

In orientation the picture puts the rest of the images into context. These pictures introduce important characters that will follow, give information about the place where the story is happening
Introductory pictures need to lead viewers into the body of the story. Introductory pictures should give people a reason to go deeper into the story.

2. Events
Good stories are more than just empty words. They explore ideas, feelings, experiences etc on a deeper level. Events picture will probably make up the majority of your story. They show what happens but also explore themes and ideas. Types of themes might include reorientation.

3. Reorientation

Good recount are quite intentional about the way they end their stories. Last impressions count and it’s worth considering what lasting image/s you want to leave with the viewer of your photos. By no means you need to tie up your story neatly. Good stories sometimes leave people feeling unsettled and wanting resolution, but do consider how you want to end. | Peacock

Thursday, April 25, 2013


SOAL-SOAL OLIMPIADE MATEMATIKA DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS >>> Dengan semakin berkembangnya dunia teknologi, maka semakin kecil saja dunia ini terasa. Rasanya kok untuk mengenal dunia ini, bisa kita lakukan cukup dari dalam kamar saja. Belum lagi ditambah dengan penguasaan bahasa Dunia yang membuat siapapun menjadi mudah untuk mengakses segala sesuatu, tak terkecuali di bidang pendidikan.

Dunia pendidikan dewasa ini sudah tidak bisa dielakkan lagi bahwa Bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa yang wajib untuk diketahui. Dengan pandai berbahasa Inggris, peluang untuk menata masa depan tentunya akan lebih baik lagi tentunya.

Nah, dalam dunia pendidikan, khususnya untuk bidang yang selalu dilombakan dan selalu menjadi tolak ukur suatu negara seperti Olimpiade Sains dan Matematika, juga sudah merupakan agenda tahunan akan ajang Olimpiade Internasional Sains dan Matematika yang tentunya soal dan pembahasannya pastinya dalam Bahasa Inggris.

Berikut ini adalah daftar contoh soal-soal Olimpiade Matematika dalam Bahasa Inggris yang bisa kalian download dengan gratis berkat kebaikan dari mas Cakep Muchtar.

Berikut adalah link-link soalnya berikut dengan kunci jawabannya.

 Baiklah, sekian dahulu artikel yang bisa saya share pada hari ini, semoga soal-soal latihan untuk olimpiade Matematika dalam bahaa Inggris ini berguna buat agan sobat pebelajar semua. Shalom!

Reading Techniques: Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Reading Comprehension and Independent Reading According to Prof. Kasihani Suyanto

Reading Techniques: Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Reading Comprehension and Independent Reading According to Prof. Kasihani Suyanto. In Kasihani (2007: 64), she differentiates reading activities into four parts namely reading aloud, silent reading, reading comprehension and independent reading.

1. Reading Aloud

Reading aloud activity is meant to train the students in order that they can read with clearly intonation and pronunciation. Reading with loud voice is a purpose to be able to pronounce words, phrases and sentences correctly.

2. Silent Reading

Silent reading activity is meant to train the students to read without voice in order that the students can concentrate their attention or though to comprehend the texts.

3. Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension activity is meant to get the information of the texts. To measure students’ reading comprehension, the teacher sometimes provides a number of questions related to the reading passage given or true and false form. Furthermore, Richard et al in El Sami Ali (2001) defines reading comprehension as the understanding that results from perceiving a written text.

4. Independent Reading
If the students are already able to read by using silent reading, reading aloud and reading comprehension, then the students move to independent reading.  In Wikipedia (accessed on April 23, 2013) it is said that independent reading is a term used in educational settings, where students are involved in choosing and reading material (fiction books, non-fiction, magazine, other media) for their independent consumption and enjoyment. People choose to read independently. It gives student the right to be creative in what they want to read. Usually Independent Reading is conducted alongside the ongoing curriculum in the classroom. Independent Reading can be tied to assessment and evaluation or remain as an activity in itself.

Suyanto, K. (2007). English For Young Learner: Melejitkan Potensi Anak Melalui English Class Yang Fun, Asyik dan Menarik. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Definition of Reading According to some Experts - General Concept of Reading

Definition of Reading According to some Experts - General Concept of Reading || According to Burhan (2012: 9), reading is a physic and mental activity to reveal the meaning of the written texts, while in that activity there is a process of knowing letters. It says a physic activity because the parts of the body, our eyes particularly, do it. And it says mental activity because perception and memory as parts of though are involved in it. He then concludes that the main goal of reading is a process of comprehending written texts.

Dealing of it, Cline (2006: 2), states that reading is decoding and understanding written texts. Decoding requires translating the symbols of writing system (including Braille) into the spoken words which they represent. Understanding is determined by the purposes for reading, the context, the nature of the text, and the readers’ strategies and knowledge. Further, Cline (2006: 2) in their second definition states that reading is the process of deriving meaning from the text. For the majority of readers, this process involves decoding written text. Some individuals require adaptation such as Braille or auditorization to support the decoding process. Understanding is determined by the purposes for reading, the context, the nature of the text, and the reader’s strategies and knowledge.

And based on the experts quotation above, I then define reading as the process of decoding and understanding of a writing system into the spoken words they represent and at the same time analyze the meaning or the messages of the text by paying attention to the intonation, stressing and pronunciation.

Writer: Jupri Malino
1. Fanani, B. E., (2012). Teknik Baca Cepat Trik Efektif Membaca 2 Detik 1 Halaman. Yogyakarta: Araska.

2. Cline, F., Johnstone, C., & King, T. (2006) Focus Group Reaction to Three Definition of Reading (as Originally Developed in Support NARAP Goal 1). Minneapolis, M.N.: National Accessible Reading Assesment Project.

3. Images Source:

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Soal Prediksi Matematika SD 2016 Berdasarkan Indikator SKL (Standar Kompetensi Lulusan)

Soal Prediksi Matematika SD 2016 Berdasarkan Indikator SKL (Standar Kompetensi Lulusan) | Tak lama lagi, UN atau Ujian Nasional Tingkat SD sudah dilaksanakan. Maka, dalam kesempatan ini, saya mau share dengan sobat pebelajar semua tentang beberapa Contoh Soal Prediksi Matematika SD 2013 Berdasarkan Indikator SKL (Standar Kompetensi Lulusan).

Seperti kita ketahui, Indikator UN matematika kali ini, sama dengan tahun 2012 lalu, dimana setiap satu indikator mewakili satu butir soal. Ini membuat kita lebih mudah untuk menentukan topik permasalahan untuk tiap butir soalnya. Contoh sederhananya ialah soal nomor 3 dengan indikator "siswa dapat menyelesaikan soal cerita yang berkaitan dengan operasi hitung campuran bilangan cacah", jadi kita hanya fokus mengajarkan bahwa permasalahan soal nomor 3 tersebut adalah operasi hitung campuran bilangan cacah. Dengan demikian, siswa sudah bisa memastikan bagaimana menyelesaikan soal tersebut, sebab pengalaman saya dengan salah satu murid saya, sebelum saya membagikan Indikator ujian, ia menjawabnya dengan menggunakan FPB dan KPK, jadinya otomatis mendapatkan hasil yang salah, walaupun hasilnya terdapat pada opsi distraktor, bukan kunci jawaban sebenarnya.

Tidak perlu berbasa-basi, mari kita pelajari bersama bersama peserta didik kita soal-soal berikut ini.

Berikut Linknya:

Selain itu, juga tersedia soal paket ujian Matematika, Bahasa Indonesia dan SAINS dimana jumlah soal Bahasa Indonesia adalah 50 butir, dan Matematika serta SAINS masing-masing 50 butir soal.

 Semua soal-soal di atas diambil dari blog kang  Cakep Muchtar, untuk itu disampaikan ucapan terimakasih kepada beliau atas kerja kerasnya mau men share soal-soal tersebut di atas guna kebaikan anak-anak didik penerus bangsa tentunya.

Free Soal Olimpiade Matematika OSN 2013 (OMITS + VEKTOR)

Free  Soal Olimpiade Matematika OSN 2013 (OMITS + VEKTOR) Bahasa Inggris dan Indonesia - Sobat pebelajar semua, tak terasa Olimpiade Sains dan Matematika Nasional sudah di depan mata. Beberapa pengelolah atau penyelenggara Olimpiade tingkat Nasional sudah menggelar babak-babak penyisihan, bahka dimulai dari sekolah-sekolah sendiri sebagai persiapan mengirimkan wakil-wakilnya untuk berkompetisi di ajang bergengsi dunia pendidikan ini.

Nah, berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh Soal babak penyisihan atau kualifikasi Olimpiade yang digunakan di kabupaten lumajang by : muhammad muchktar (pembina matematika lumajang@muchtarmath).  Anda bisa dan bebas mendownload semuanya.

Kita langsung saja, ini dia linknya:
  1. Prediksi OSN Kabupaten  2013 MTK 1
  2. Prediksi OSN Kabupaten 2013 MTK 2
  3. Kunci Prediksi OSN Kabupaten 2013 MTK 2
  4. Prediksi OSN Kabupaten 2013 MTK 3
  5. Kunci Prediksi OSN Kabupaten 2013 MTK 3
  6. Soal Olimpiade MTK Tingkat Kab 2013
  7. SD Soal Olimpiade Matematika 2013 (Penyisihan) OMITS
  8. SD Soal 2013 Olimpiade Matematika (Semifinal) OMITS
  9. vektor soal-final-sd-babak1-2011
  10. vektor soal-final-sd-babak2-2011
  11. vektor soal-final-sd-babak3-2011
  12. Persiapan AMC 2012
Soal-soal di atas ada yang sudah disertai dengan kunci jawabannya sebagai sarana mempermudah kita dalam mengevaluasi hasil pekerjaan kita, hanya saja bahwa belum ada penjelasan mengenai langkah pengerjaannya. Kalau saya udah dapat, pasti saya share di sini. Atau ada yang udah punya? yuk share di sini.
Selain itu, untuk soal-soal OSN Matematika dari Vektor dan OMITS, sudah tersedia soal dalam bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Inggris, so let's try yours.
Materi-materi di atas saya ambil dari situs Ayo Mendidik atas seijin pemilik situs. Oleh karena itu, jangan ragu untuk membaginya atau share kepada yang lain, tapi jangan lupa untuk menyertakan link sumbernya. Trimakasih sebelumnya buat admin Ayo Mendidik.

Monday, April 22, 2013

The Purpose of Descriptive, Recount, Narrative, Procedure and Short Functional Texts

The Purpose of Descriptive, Recount, Narrative, Procedure and Short Functional Texts - Rekan pebelajar semua, kali ini saya mau share tentang tujuan atau The purpose dari descriptive (deskriptif) , Procedure (prosedur), Narrative (Naratif / Narasi), Recount  dan Short Functional Teks (Teks Pendek). Short Functional Texts sendiri terbagi dalam beberapa kategori yaitu Invitation (Undangan), Greeting Card (Kartu Ucapan), Prohibition (Larangan), E-Mail, Short Message (Pesan SIngkat), Notice atau Memo, Sign (Rambu/tanda), letter (surat), Announcement (Pengumuman) dan Advertisement (Iklan).


Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. 
(deskriptif teks adalah teks yang menjelaskan tentang bagaimana cisi-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat.)

Its purpose is to describe and to reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
(Tujuannya adalah untuk menjelaskan atau menyatakan tentang orang, tempat atau benda tertentu, bukan secara umum)

The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text 

  1. Identification  : Identifying the phenomenon to be described.(identifikasi); mengidentifikasi fenomena semisal orang, benda atau tempat tertetu yang akan dijelaskan) 
  2. Description : Describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and  characteristics. (deskripsi)  : menjelaskan tentang hal yang mau dijelaskan dari bentuk bagian-bagian, ukuran, san atau karakternya)


Recount isa text which retells events or experiences in the past.
(recount teks adalah teks yang menceritakan ulang kembali peristiwa atau pengalaman yang telah lalu)

Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. (tujuannya yaitu untuk memberikan informasi atau juga untuk menghibur pendengar).

The Generic Structure of Recount Text
  1. Orientation    : Introducing the participants, place and time.                (memperkenalkan tokoh, tempat dan waktu. biasanya di paragraph pertama)
  2.  Events   : Describing series of event that happened in the past.  (menjelaskan secara runtut peristiwa yang telah terjadi pada masa lalu)
  3. Reorientation : It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story. (reorientation kadang ada, kadang tidak. Isi paragrafnya berupa komentar pribadi dari si penulis atau penutur cerita)
Language Feature of Recount Text (Bahasa yang sering digunakan)

1. Introducing personal participant; I, he, my family, etc.
2. Using chronological connection; then, first, finally, last, etc.
3. Using linking verb; was, were, had, could, saw, gave, etc.
4. Using action verb; look, go, change, etc.
5. Using simple past tense.


The  purpose isto entertain or to amuse the readers.
(Tujuan naratif teks adalah untuk menghibur atau menyenangkan pembaca)

Generic Structure of Narrative Text 

1.  Orientation : Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place.
(paragraph yang memperkenalkan para tokoh, waktu dan tempat)
2.  Complication : Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with.
(paragraph yang menjelaskan tentang puncak masalah dalam cerita)
3.  Resolution : Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse.
(paragraph yang memperlihatkan bagaimana tokoh utama menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi, apah menjadi lebih baik atau sebaliknya)
4.   Reorientation : It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story.
(reorientation kadang ada, kadang tidak. Isi paragrafnya berupa komentar pribadi dari si penulis atau penutur cerita)

Language Features of Narrative Text
1. Using processes verbs.
2. Using temporal conjunction.
3. Using simple Past Tense.


Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. 

It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.

The Generic Structures of Procedure Text
1. Goal/aim ( or title).
2. Materials (not required for all procedural texts).
3. Steps (the actions that must be taken).

Language Features of Procedure Text

1. Use of imperatives (e.g.: cut, don’t mix).
2. Use of action Verbs (e.g. : turn, put, mix).
3. Use of connectives (e.g. : first, then, finally, …).
4. Use of adverbial phrases (e.g. : for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top).


1. Invitation (undangan).
a. Fungsi: (to invite) untuk mengundang seseorang untuk menghadiri sebuah acara .
b. Bagian /struktur: alamat (orang yang mengundang), salam, isi pesan pengirim.
c. Syarat:
- harus memiliki alamat yang lengkap / jelas.
- Member waktu yang jelas, tempat dan aktivitas.
- Menyediakan informasi yang memadai.

2. Greeting card (kartu ucapan)
Katru ucapan fungsinya sebagai ungkapan simpati dan peduli terhadap lainnya.
A. Tujuan: (to congrate)
a. Member selamat atas keberhasilan seseorang.
b. Untuk menyatakan simpati pada seseorang.
c. Untuk memotivasi seseorang yang mendapatkan prestasi.
B. Hal yang penting:
a. Memperjelas tujuan
b. Menggunakan penilaian diksi

3. Prohibition (larangan)
Prohibition fungsinya memberitahu orang untuk tidak melakukan sesuatu
(to tell people not to do something)

4. Announcement (pengumuman)
A. Fungsi: (To inform)
Announcement menyediakan informasi yang lengkap dan jelas tentang peristiwa tertentu.
B. berikut adalah beberapa tips dalam menulis pengumuman:
- jelas dan memudahkan para pembaca untuk mendapatkan informasi dengan cepat.
- Singkat , mengundang, dan langsung ke intinya
- Jelas dan lengkap
- Tidak untuk berita buruk, membuat pernyataan langsung dan tidak ada omong kosong.

5. Short message (pesan singkat)
A. Fungsi:
Untuk mengirim pesan penting untuk oranglain
B. Beberapa tips untuk mengirim pesan singkat (short message)
1) alamat jelas (seseorang yang menerima pesan)
2) mudah di pahami

6. signs (rambu)
rambu adalah "sesuatu yang berdiri untuk sesuatu, kepada seseorang dalam beberapa kapasitas" bisa dimengerti sebagai sebuah unit diskrit makna, dan termasuk kata-kata, gambar, gerak, aroma, rasa, tekstur, suara - pada dasarnya semua cara di mana informasi dapat dikomunikasikan sebagai pesan oleh pikiran, hidup penalaran yang lain.

7. Notice (pemberitahuan)
pemberitahuan adalah konsep hukum yang dibuat pihak menyadari adanya proses hukum yang mempengaruhi hak, kewajiban atau tugas. ada beberapa jenis pemberitahuan: pemberitahuan publik (atau pemberitahuan resmi), perhatikan aktual, pemberitahuan konstruktif, dan perhatikan tersirat.

8. Identity card (kartu identitas)
Kartu identitas adalah kartu yang menampakan identitas diri pada sebuah kartu seperti alamat rumah, tempat tanggal lahir, dll

9. Shopping list (daftar belanja)
A shopping list adalah daftar hal hal yang ingin kamu beli ketika kamu ingin berbelanja, yang kamu tulis di kertas.

10. Post card (kartu post)
Post card adalah bagian persegi panjang kertas tebal atau karton tipis ditujukan untuk menulis dan pengiriman tanpa amplop.

11. Letter (surat)
Letter adalah komunikasi tertulis atau dicetak: pesan disajikan dalam karakter dimengerti pada sesuatu disesuaikan dengan alat angkut, seperti kertas, perkamenseperti sebuah surat.