Thursday, February 23, 2012

MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS: GESTALT THEORY | MAKALAH TEORI GESTALT

CHAPTER I
Introduction

A.   Background
The study of gestalt originated in Germany in the 1920s. It is a form of psychology that is interested in higher order cognitive processes relative to behaviorism. The aspects of gestalt theory that interests designers are related to gestalt's investigations of visual perception, principally the relationship between the parts and the whole of visual experience.
The visual world is so complex that the mind has developed strategies for coping with the confusion. The mind tries to find the simplest solution to a problem. One of the ways it does this is to form groups of items that have certain characteristics in common.
B.   Problem Statements
1.      What is the definition of Gestalt Theory?
2.      How does the Gestalt Theory principles?

C.    Objective Of The Study
1.      To put the designer in control of what the viewers see when they look at a composition.
2.      Gestalt theory holds that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. The other is when frighten process will be happened in the student self to make an innovative and created idea.

  1. Significance Of The Study
The writer raises this topic or this problem because writer wants all teachers can know about Gestalt Theory. Writer also hopes all the candidates teacher can use this theory in teaching-learning process.

  1. Scope Of  The Study
In this paper, the writer only discusses about the Gestalt Theory in specific way.



CHAPTER II
Discussion

A.    Gestalt Theory Definition
The German word gestaltcannot be translated into an equivalent, single English term. It encompasses such a wide variety of concepts: a shape, a pattern, a whole form, and a configuration. Gestalt therapy draws on all of these meanings, with equal emphasis on the organized whole and on the notion of pattern.
Kurt Lewin stated, "There is nothing as practical as a good theory." This being true for all therapeutic modalities, it applies to Gestalt therapy as well. Excitement, awareness, contact, and dialogue are all crucial elements that come to life in the therapeutic encounter. Being theoretically anchored and able to conceptualize the therapeutic change process is a prerequisite for contributing to the effectiveness of any therapeutic encounter and therefore growth. Defining and describing theoretical concepts, however, cannot capture the excitement and vitality that is the vehicle for good contact, deepening of awareness and the powerful choices one can access with all their multi-dimensional ramifications.
Most of what you will study about gestalt is concerned with how these groups are formed and what effect they have on perception. The stronger the grouping, the stronger the gestalt. It is this grouping that contributes to the unity in a design. Gestalt is one of the most powerful tools available to a designer for creating unity.
The same concepts that form groups can be reversed to ungroup items -- to make them look unique and stand alone. That is the basis for creating variety. Variety is what adds interest to an image.
The trick is to strike a balance between unity and variety. Too much unity and the design can look boring and repetitive; too much variety and it can look chaotic and disconnected. Understanding gestalt concepts can help a designer control unity and variety.
In fact, I may conclude that Gestalt therapy is about the aliveness and excitement, the awareness of choice everyone has in creating their lives. Gestalt is a theory that explains perceptions process through sensation components organization which has a relation, shape or same to be unity.

B.     Principles in Gestalt Theory
Gestalt theory is not limited only to the concept of the Gestalt or the whole, or to the Gestalt principles of the organization of perception (such as it is presented in many publications), but it must be seen far broader and more encompassing:
·         The primacy of the phenomenal: Recognizing and taking seriously the human world of experience as the only immediately given reality, and not simply discussing it away, is a fundamental assertion of GT, the fruitfulness of which for psychology and psychotherapy has by no means been exhausted.
·         It is the interaction of the individual and the situation in the sense of a dynamic field which determines experience and behavior, and not only drives (psychoanalysis, ethology) or external stimuli (behaviorism, Skinner) or static personality traits (classical personality theory).
·         Connections among psychological contents are more readily and more permanently created on the basis of substantive concrete relationships than by sheer repetition and reinforcement.
·         Thinking and problem solving are characterized by appropriate substantive organization, restructuring, and centering of the given ('insight') in the direction of the desired solution.
·         In memory, structures based on associative connections are elaborated and differentiated according to a tendency for optimal organization.
·         Cognitions which an individual cannot integrate, lead to an experience of dissonance. And towards cognitive processes directed at reducing this dissonance.
·         In a supra-individual whole such as a group, there is a tendency toward specific relationships in the interaction of strengths and needs.
The epistemological orientation of Gestalt Theory tends to be a kind of critical realism. Methodologically, it tries to achieve a meaningful integration of experimental and phenomenological procedures (the experimental-phenomenological method). Crucial phenomena are examined without reduction of experimental precision. GT should not be understood as a static scientific position. But as a paradigm that is continuing to develop. Through developments such as the theory of the self-organization of systems, it attains major significance for many of the current concerns of psychology.



CHAPTER III
Conclusions and Suggestions

A.          Conclusion
         Experimental work on Gestalt learning is primarily about the problem-solving capacities of animals: chimps spontaneously pile up boxes in order to climb on them to reach bananas, for example (Köhler, 1925). The learning element is shown by their ability to repeat the action later, without apparently having to pause and think about it as they did the first time. However, recent experiments have shown Betty the crow doing something just as ingenious and remarkable.
         It also contributes to an account of some of the difficulties people have with learning: Gestalten (similar to schemata, in a different discourse), once formed, are not easily dislodged or replaced.

B.        Suggestion
The ultimate aim of Gestalt therapy is to assist the client in restoring (or discovering) his/her own natural ability to self-regulate as an organism and have successful and fulfilling contact with others (environmental others), as well as with disowned aspects of oneself (internal others). That allows one to be able to cope creatively with the events of one’s life and to pursue those goals which seem good and desirable to one self.

1 comment:

  1. saya sering berkunjung di blog-blog, postingan ini sangat menarik serta enak dibaca.... saya berharap bisa berkunjung lagi

    ReplyDelete