Saturday, October 8, 2011

THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD | TEACHING METHOD

THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) METHOD (1960s-2000s) : The Total Physical Response method is focusing on listening comprehension by considering from observation to how children acquire their mother tongue. A baby spends many months listening to the people around him. The child has the time to try to make sense out of the sounds he hears.
 
This approach, also known as TPR, was founded by James Asher. In this method, both language and body movement are synchronized through action responses and use of the imperative (direct commands).  TPR may be used in conjunction with some other methods involving psychoneuro kinetic techniques wherein the teacher gives a host of commands with the students  responding by “acting out” the command: “Stand up”, “Go to the door”, "Sit down", etc. Kinetic movement of the hands and arms is incorporated in lieu of rote memorization. Student speech is delayed until they feel comfortable enough to give other students commands too. TPR is very effective in teaching temporal states, personal pronouns, and other deep grammatical structures.

The Principles of the Total Physical Response Method

  1. The goals are to provide an enjoyable learning experience, having a minimum of the stress that typically accompanies learning a foreign language.
  2. The teacher gives commands and students follow them. Once students are ready to speak, they take on directing roles.
  3. Lessons begin with commands by the teacher and students demonstrate their understanding by acting these out. Teachers recombine their instructions in novel and often humorous ways, and eventually students follow suit. Activities later include games and skits.
  4. The method was developed principally to reduce the stress associated with language learning. Students are not forced to speak before they are ready and learning is made as enjoyable as possible, stimulating feelings of success and low anxiety.
  5. Oral modality is primary and culture is the lifestyle of native speakers of the target language.
  6. Grammatical structures and vocabulary are emphasized, imbedded in imperatives. Understanding precedes production. Spoken language precedes the written words.
  7. Method is introduced in students’ native language, but rarely used later in course. Meaning is made clear through actions.
  8. Teachers can evaluate students through simple observation of their actions. Formal evaluation is achieved by commanding a student to perform a series of actions.
  9. Students are expected to make errors once they begin speaking. Teachers only correct major errors and do this unobtrusively. Fine turning occurs later.
The Teaching Techniques Used the Total Physical Response Method
  1. Using commands to direct behavior, that is, the commands are given to get students to perform an action and the action makes the pace lively.
  2. Role reversal, that is, students command their teacher and their classmates to perform some actions. The students may speak longer, but should not be encouraged to speak until they are ready.
  3. Action sequence, that is, the teacher gives three connected commands and the students learn more and more of the target language, a longer series of connected commands can be given, which together comprise a whole procedure.
That's all we can share about TPR, hopefully our article will be a good reference to yours. Thankz

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