Sunday, October 9, 2011

Jigsaw Technique or Jigsaw Method | Metode atau Tehnik Jigsaw Pembelajaran Kooperatif

Well, at this point I want to share about Jigsaw Method. Jigsaw  is a technique or method used in Cooperative Learning. In this method, teacher divides a huge or big information into several small components. Then the students are divided into Cooperative Learning Groups and each group consists of  four to six students and all the member take responsibility to understand all the material as good as possible.

Jigsaw Technique is one of the cooperative learning methods invented by Aronson. In the application of jigsaw technique, students separate from their own groups (home groups) and form a new group with the other students who are responsible for preparing the some subjects. 

Mengduo and Xioaling (2010: 113) state that jigsaw technique was considered effective in increasing positive educational outcomes. As a cooperative learning technique, it has been greatly studied abroad and has been explored in various ways by a numbers of researchers and teachers in classes of different levels and of different subjects. Suyanto (2012: 169) states that the implementation of cooperative learning jigsaw technique in the teaching learning process can make the students more responsible, therefore they directly and actively take a part in comprehending a problem and fix it together in a group.

Further, Berkeley-Wykes in Ali (2001) defines Jigsaw Reading Technique as the technique in which a reading text is cut into segments and the task of the students is to restore it to its proper order – to make sense of the text. If used as a group activity where the students discuss the decisions of how to order the segments of the text, it can elicit s great deal of communicative interaction.


Aronson, as a developer of jigsaw technique in jigsaw official site, defines the implementation of Jigsaw technique in 10 Easy Steps as below: 



  1. Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.
  2. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group.
  3. Divide the day's lesson into 5-6 segments.
  4. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment.
  5. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it.
  6. Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
  7. Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups.
  8. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification.
  9. Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it's best for the group leader to handle this task. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader gets the hang of it.
  10. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count.
Each student on the team becomes an "expert" on one topic by working with members from other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group; and students are all assessed on all aspects of the topic.

Aronson, in Jigsaw Official site (2013), states that the purpose of Jigsaw is to develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills within all students. In addition it helps develop a depth of knowledge not possible if the students were to try and learn all of the material on their own. Jigsaw learning allows students to be introduced to material and yet maintain a high level of personal responsibility. Finally, because students are required to present their findings to the home group, Jigsaw learning will often disclose a student’s own understanding of a concept as well as reveal any misunderstandings.


While there are others Jigsaw techniques, the original one was invented by Aronson (it then be called Jigsaw I), Jigsaw II was developed by Robert Slavin and Reverse Jigsaw was developed by Timothy Hedeen. But the most likely each other are Jigsaw I by Aronson and Jigsaw II by Slavin. In the table 2.1 below, it shows the differences of the implementation of Jigsaw I and Jigsaw II.


Table 2.1 Comparison of jigsaw I and jigsaw II techniques


Jigsaw    I (Anderson)

  1. Formation of home groups and pre-work
  2. Giving the groups of experts the units of work
  3. Expert groups research their expertise subjects before they return to their home groups
  4. Students in expert groups return to their home groups to share what they have learnt with their friends.
  5. Individual evaluation and grading.

Jigsaw II (Slavin)

  1. Formation of home groups and pre-work
  2. Giving the groups of experts the units of work
  3. Expert groups research their expertise subjects before they return to their home groups
  4. A test of expertise is given to expert groups before they return to their home groups.
  5. Students in expert groups return to their home groups to share what they have learnt with their friends.
  6. Individual evaluation and grading. 
Source: Sahin (2010)

In table 2.1 above, it shows that generally there are five stages in Jigsaw I and six stages in Jigsaw II. The difference is at the fourth stage of Jigsaw II. On the fourth stage in Jigsaw II developed by Slavin, there is a test of expertise is given to expert groups before they return to their home groups, while it is not done in Jigsaw I by Aronson.

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